2017 Symposium on Music Teacher Education
Graduate Research Forum
Friday, September 8, 2017
12:10 PM – 2:00 PM
All posters sorted alphabetically by first author’s last name.
Student Perceptions of Recruitment and Retention Strategies in Low Socioeconomic Beginning String Programs
Mallory A. Alekna, Arizona State University
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad A, Board 4A)
The purpose of this study was to understand students’ perceptions of recruitment and retention in above average enrollment beginning group string programs within low socioeconomic status communities. Ten sixth grade students completed individual interviews, which I analyzed through emergent category coding. Recruitment themes included verbal recruitment, orchestra as a means to self-growth and as a low-pressure decision. Students perceived gaining skills, being with friends, receiving incentives, scholarship opportunities, and middle school class choices as impacting their decision to remain in orchestra. Students’ perceptions varied regarding their teachers, some seeing them as encouraging while others as discouraging their retention in orchestra.
Music in the Minds Ear: A Review of Literature Related to Mental Practice and Audiation
Patrick M. Antinone, Texas Tech University
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad A, Board 3A)
This review of literature examines research addressing the interrelated nature of mental practice (Fine, 2015; Ross, 1985; Miksza, 2005) and audiation (Gordon, 1997; Saunders 1991) as well as the effectiveness of mental practice and audiation as instructional strategies. The related strategies are founded on the aural perception of music in absence of the physical presence of sound itself. Although both strategies are commonly utilized as instructional strategies, literature pertaining to the effectiveness of said strategies is relatively numerous for mental practice but less for audiation. Implications for educator preparation regarding these strategies are examined.
Preservice Music Educators’ Motivation to Learn a Secondary String Instrument
Molly K. Baugh, University of Michigan
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad A, Board 4A)
The purpose of this study was to examine preservice music educators’ motivation to learn a secondary string instrument from a socio-educational perspective. Adapted from Gardner’s (2010) socio-educational model of second language learning, this study examined relationships between motivation and integrativeness (desire to interact with the string-teaching community), attitudes (toward the secondary instrument course), and anxiety. Participants were undergraduate music education students from two large research universities. Data collection is currently in progress through an online questionnaire. Results may further the understanding of motivation to learn secondary string instruments and provide implications for teacher education.
Effects of Social Dominance, Egalitarian Beliefs, and Belief in School Meritocracy on Perceived Competence in High School Music Ensemble Students
Patrick K. Cooper, University of South Florida
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad A, Board 3C)
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between social dominance orientation, egalitarian beliefs, belief in school meritocracy, and the perceived competence of high school students in music ensembles. Data are collected via the Social Values in Musical Systems (SVMS) survey, a 19-item survey that measures (a) perceived competence, (b) belief in school meritocracy, (c) social dominance orientation, and (d) egalitarian beliefs in music. Preliminary analysis shows that BSM was the strongest predictor of perceived competence. Implications are drawn for music educators to reconsider how classroom structure can influence the perceived competence of their students.
Finding Meaning in Musicking for Music Teachers
Patrick K. Cooper, University of South Florida
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad A, Board 3C)
The purpose of this study is to explore how practicing music teachers find meaning through musicking outside of school. This multiple case study reports the reflections, perspectives, and experiences of a diverse group of performers and teachers by age, experience, musicking style, and teaching assignment. Findings suggest music teachers were forced to give up a favorite style of musicking from their adolescents during their undergraduate programs, and that returning to this style of musicking as practicing teachers increased their well-being and happiness. Implications are drawn on the importance of dual-identity development and musicking opportunities as professional development for music educators.
Exploring Access, Intersectionality, and Privilege in Music Teacher Education
Samuel Escalante, University of North Texas
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad C, Board 16C)
The purpose of this instrumental case study was to explore preservice music teachers’ experiences with three class sessions designed to relate the concepts of access, intersectionality, and privilege to circumstances they may encounter in their own classrooms. Participants were 10 senior-level music education students enrolled in an elementary methods course. Data were collected through reflective journal entries for each session in addition to two focus group interviews. Preliminary findings suggest the participants found the content relevant and valued the manner in which the content was presented. Implications for incorporating content related to social justice in music teacher education will be discussed.
Early Childhood Educators' Behaviors, Valuing, and Confidence with Teaching Music after Targeted Professional Development
H. Ellie Falter, University of Colorado Boulder
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad A, Board 4B)
Preschool children receive music education from possibly under-prepared generalist teachers. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine (a) relationships between early childhood educators’ self-reported confidence to teach music and the value they placed on music and (b) the effects of music professional development sessions on these same measures plus observed teaching behaviors. Within a post-test only treatment/control group design, trained observers were blinded to group assignment. Implications for music teacher educators who work with preschool teachers include focusing professional development to support specific forms of confidence and connecting to best teaching practices of general education.
Assessing Identity in Traditionally and Alternatively Certified Music Teachers: Self-Efficacy and Commitment
Marta Frey-Clark, University of North Texas
Justin West, University of North Texas
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad A, Board 4C)
Researchers have found that alternatively certified music teachers differ from their traditionally certified counterparts in terms of personal demographic profiles as well as school profiles. The purpose of this study is determine whether alternatively certified teachers also differ in the magnitude of their music teacher identities. The Music Teacher Identity Scale (Wagoner, 2015), which measures the constructs of self-efficacy and commitment, will be administered to a sample of music teachers. A mixed ANOVA will be conducted with routes to certification (traditional vs. alternative) serving as a between-subjects variable and music teacher identity (self-efficacy vs. commitment) serving as a within-subjects variable.
The Pure Gold Coin: A Collection of Italian Songs for Children from Lo Zecchino D'oro, An Italian Children's Music Composition Festival
Jennifer Nicole Giustino, Michigan State University
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad A, Board 4C)
Making music relevant to students is a concern of all music educators. While there are multiple music textbooks that provide repertoire for K-5 music classrooms, there is a dearth in the variety of cultures that are represented, Italy being one of them. This poster recognizes the need for culturally responsive teaching in American music classrooms as a result increasing diversity. Additionally, I share accessible options for how current and preservice teachers can appropriately incorporate Italian songs for children in their curricula to further enrich their efforts in multicultural music education and combat the tokenism that exists in elementary music repertoire.
Development of Core Beliefs in High School Band Directors
Garrett L. Griffin, University of Florida
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad A, Board 4D)
Most music educators have a set of core beliefs about music teaching and learning. Core beliefs are entrenched principles and values that may affect the way we teach. Our experiences, expectations, and ideas about music education help to inform these beliefs. The purpose of this study was to investigate core beliefs of high school band directors’ and the role they play in professional practice. The results of this investigation may enhance our understanding of band directors’ development and use of core beliefs, which may have implications for both pre-service music teacher education and the professional development of in-service music teachers.
Demographic Predictors of High School Music Students, Music Majors, and Professional Musicians
Adam T. Grisé, University of Maryland
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad A, Board 4D)
In the 2009 High School Longitudinal Survey administered by NCES, a nationally representative sample of 23,503 high school students were asked about their intended future occupation as freshmen and again as juniors. A small, but observable population indicated professional music ambitions. Comparing which freshmen and juniors expressed professional music ambitions, enrolled in music classes, and/or as seniors indicated a college music major highlights demographic similarities and differences within and between these groups. This study outlines predictive demographic variables such as race, ethnicity, gender, and SES among these populations.
How Can I Help?: A Principal's Guide to Secondary Instrumental Music Education
Amanda L. Kastner, University of Florida
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad B, Board 10A)
The purpose of this Capstone Project was to provide a guidebook for secondary school principals that offers an initial overview of instrumental music programs and the role of the band director that can provide a starting point for conversations that will develop in-depth understanding that will provide a foundation for the support that is needed. A summary of the literature reviewed is included in this document. The 15-page guide is considered a “pull-out” that could be separated for the total manuscript, given to a principal to begin an important dialogue.
Picture Yourself in Band: A Content Analysis of Images in Beginning Band Books
Marsha Croskey Kincade, Case Western Reserve University
Nicholas Marzuola, Case Western Reserve University
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad B, Board 10A)
Students are influenced by the content of images in textbooks, which can send strong messages about how the world is structured in terms of gender and race. For beginning band students, some of their earliest images of who can participate in band and on what instruments come from their beginning band method books. With that in mind, the purpose of this research is to examine the portrayal of race and gender in currently used beginning band method books with the goal of better understanding how students may be seeing their own place in band.
Student Teaching: An Autoethnography of an International Student
Hanna Lee, Texas Tech University
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad B, Board 10B)
This research is an autoethnographic study of the researcher’s student teaching experience. The researcher’s different perspectives about her student teaching experience as an international doctoral student in music education with previous teaching experiences will be examined based on her 55 daily self-reflection journals. By looking at her learning experience, university advisors will be more equipped in advising different types of student teachers with individualized guidelines.
Topics for Further Investigation in the Teaching of World Music: A Review of Literature
Kailimi Li, University of Massachusetts Amherst
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad B, Board 10B)
In scholarly literature, the term “world music” has come to be defined as various cultural musics and musical styles, particularly those of non-Western musical cultures. Though music teachers in the United States began to regularly incorporate world music into curricula in the 20th century, this has not been without challenges. This literature review explores topics for further investigation surrounding the teaching and learning of world music in U.S. schools, including the historical development of world music pedagogy, rationales for its inclusion in music education curricula, and challenges related to authenticity and teacher preparation.
Integrating Technology to Facilitate Mentoring Opportunities for Preservice Music Teachers
Melissa Renee Life, University of Florida
Vadim D. Arsky Filho, University of Florida
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad B, Board 10C)
Mentoring offers many benefits to preservice teachers. However, the amount of time needed to be in the placement field leaves many higher education professionals with difficulty meeting the demands needed to be a successful mentor. Technology can offer many benefits to higher education professionals to allow the mentor and the mentee to connect virtually. This study will provide ways of integrating technology into the field placement to allow maximum opportunities for the mentor and the mentee to connect. As the music education profession continues to evolve, we must also evolve our methods of meeting the needs of our preservice teachers.
Factors Influencing Music Teacher Retention: A Literature Review
Christopher M. Marra, University of Michigan
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad C, Board 16D)
Music teacher migration and attrition is a serious concern for our profession, especially within the first five years of teaching. Inadequate administrative support and work overload are the most frequently cited issues contributing to music teacher attrition. Implications from this literature review suggest a need to develop better working relationships with administrators and a proactive approach to improving the working conditions of the job. Future research may provide vital information about how to better position music educators for greater job satisfaction and long-term success in the profession.
"I Totally Take Back What I Said!": Exploring the Role of Classroom Observation in Pre-Service Music Teacher Socialization
Becky Marsh, Michigan State University
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad B, Board 10C)
Despite being a common element of introductory music education and methods courses, little research examines the role or processes of classroom observations in pre-service music teacher preparation. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of classroom observations in the socialization of pre-service music teachers enrolled in an introductory music education course. As a participant observer, the researcher shared in the experience of three pre-service teachers, each with a choral/vocal focus, completing six observations in an elementary general music classroom. The participants’ voices may inform music teacher educators in the design and implementation of classroom observation field experiences.
Multicultural Music in Elementary Music Classrooms within American International Schools.
Vallie S. Owens, Texas Tech University
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad B, Board 10D)
International schools are increasing in globally transient society (Hayden, Rancic & Thompson, 2000). Teacher trainers need more awareness about international schools (Kissock & Richardson, 2010), as international schools are increasingly viable occupational option (Thomas, n.d.). The researcher investigated repertoire selections of elementary music teachers at American influenced international schools to discover the extent and frequency that multicultural music was implemented and criteria of repertoire selections. Semi-structured interviews (Merriam, 1998) were conducted via Skype with elementary music educators (N = 3) who teach abroad. Emergent themes were censorship, expectations, curricula, accessibility, cultural practices. The researcher plans replicate on a larger scale.
A Descriptive Study of Music Performance Anxiety Among Non-Major Undergraduates
Eric M Pennello, University of Oklahoma
Ryan N Meeks, University of Oklahoma
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad A, Board 3B)
The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived intensity and nature of anxiety reported by non-music majors enrolled in a performance-based general music course. Participants (N = 231) completed a pre/post survey addressing physiological responses, performance factors, and coping strategies related to performance anxiety. Findings will highlight participants’ perceived level of anxiety. We will present implications for instructors of similar non-major courses, as well as music teacher educators who prepare future classroom teachers. Understanding how students experience anxiety may help to inform the planning and development of curriculum and instruction for performance-based music courses.
A Descriptive Study of Perceptions of Music Teacher Identity and Influence Among Undergraduate Music Education Majors
Eric M. Pennello, University of Oklahoma
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad A, Board 3B)
The purpose of this study was (a) to examine how undergraduate music education majors describe their perceptions of music teacher identity, (b) determine what factors impacted that perception, and (c) determine any change in identity perception as undergraduate students move throughout the music education curriculum. Participants (N = 73) were music education students enrolled in a music education methods course at the time of the study and were representative of all disciplines within music education at various stages of their coursework. Findings highlight the differences in music teacher identity and those factors that influenced their decision to study music education.
The Evolution of Professional Music Teacher Identity: A Comparison of String Project Alumni Within Teaching Career Cycles
Elizabeth A. Reed, University of South Carolina
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad B, Board 11A)
The purpose of this research was to examine the evolution of professional music teacher identity (PMTI) for teachers with a common authentic context learning experience, the String Project. The researcher’s analysis not only offered perspectives within various career stages, but also showed ranking and narrative justification for aspects of PMTI. There is a need for more studies that examine the evolution of inservice music teachers' PMTI across career stages. Professional growth or stagnation may occur throughout a teacher's career, but efforts to capture this evidence is necessary to reflect upon lifelong learning and to mitigate attrition.
Parents' Perceptions of Early Childhood Music Class Participation
Adrienne M. Rodriguez, Michigan State University
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad B, Board 11A)
The purpose of this multiple case study is to determine what motivates parents to enroll themselves and their children in early childhood music classes and what they perceive to be the benefits of that participation. Four families enrolled in two early childhood music classes at a community music school affiliated with a large Midwestern university were selected as informants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and researcher fieldnotes. I will transcribe, analyze, and code the data for emergent themes. Then I will discuss implications for early child music educators and program design.
Survey of Secondary Instrumental Teachers in Indiana and Colorado Regarding Ensemble Setup, Teacher’s Use of Classroom Space, and Teacher’s Perceptions of Immediacy
Nicholas Roseth, Indiana University Bloomington
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad B, Board 11B)
Research in general education suggests that important relationships between classroom setup and teacher-student immediacy improve student motivation, affect, and learning. However, these issues in large ensemble classrooms seems relatively unexplored. The purpose of this study was to survey secondary band and orchestra teachers in Indiana and Colorado regarding their classroom setups, attitude toward immediacy and proximity, and their perceptions of their own use of classroom space and teacher-student immediacy. Participants included all identified secondary band and orchestra teachers in Indiana and Colorado. Data collection will begin in April 2017, with analysis and results completed prior to September 2017.
In-service Music Teachers as Reflective Practitioners: A Case Study of Early and Late Career Reflection
Casey P. Schmidt, Northwestern University - Bienen School of Music
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad B, Board 11B)
Reflective practice is an important facet of teacher learning and growth. Despite its influence on teacher development, there is little research that investigates the reflective practice of in-service music teachers. This ongoing instrumental case study hopes to fill this gap by exploring the reflective practice of beginning inservice music teachers and experienced in-service music teachers teaching in urban public schools. How and when do teachers reflect on their practice?, Why do teachers reflect?, Why don’t teachers reflect?, and Do teachers with different levels of experience reflect on their practice differently? Preliminary results indicate 14 themes emerging from the data.
Critiquing the Cycle: A Historical Analysis of Access in Music Teacher Education
Jonathon Charles Soderberg-Chase, University of Minnesota
Emily Pierce Heuschele, University of Minnesota
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad B, Board 11C)
American undergraduate music education students juggle the disparate curriculum requirements of theoretical music study, applied music performance, liberal arts coursework, and pedagogical practice. This overcrowded curriculum model is the result of competing historical pressure from three foundational forces: the normal school, the liberal arts institution, and the music conservatory. These traditions have limited the study of music education to a narrow population of potential educators. To critically examine this complex background, we synthesize historical and current literature and present a visual model in order to better understand possibilities for reinvention and reform.
Student Perceptions of Their Teacher's Philosophical Beliefs and Practices
Myung Ok Julie Song-Ross, University of Florida
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad B, Board 11C)
Philosophies of music education provide a basis for music teachers to consider what music they should teach and how they should teach it. The purpose of this study was to examine school music student’s perceptions of their teacher’s philosophical beliefs and practices. Two leading philosophies in music education, aesthetic and praxial, provided the theoretical framework for this research. Volunteer students completed a 20-item Likert-type questionnaire, with 10 items representing each philosophical perspective. In addition, the students’ teachers completed a teacher version of the questionnaire. Results of the study may have implications for both pre- and in-service music teacher education.
Leaving the Nest: Pathways Between the Present and Future Musical Lives of Non-Music Majors in Collegiate Bands”‚
Anand Raj Sukumaran, University of Michigan
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad B, Board 11D)
This study explores the relationships between the musical present and idealized future of non-music majors (N = 161) in collegiate bands at one Midwestern university. A researcher designed survey instrument was administered with a response rate of 79.7%. Although 60.2% of participants expressed a desire for post-graduation musical engagement, only 54.03% reported that the concert band context would be of continued importance. Primary instrument and notational software skills were the variables with the strongest, positive relationships to post-graduation music making confidence. There was no association between preferred musical genres and future musical contexts. Implications for music teacher education are discussed.
"Unfit to Teach": LGBTQ Music Educators' Experiences with Discrimination
Latasha Thomas-Durrell, Michigan State University
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad C, Board 16A)
One of the biggest concerns about being an LGBTQ teacher is the absence of protection from unfair treatment due to sexual or gender identity. Using a survey, this descriptive study explores LGBTQ music educators' experiences with discrimination. The braod emergent themes that arose from the data included: (a) curricular implications of heteronormativity or issues of culture, (b) various stereotypes of LGBTQ teachers, (c) religious ironies, and (d) the practice of "radical honesty." The results from this study can be used as a catalyst for correcting antiquated stereotypes about LGBTQ music educators' ability to teach their content.
Church Choir as a Community Music Phenomenon
Sarah E. Toca, Eastman School of Music
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad C, Board 16A)
The purpose of this study is to examine perceptions and motivations of members and directors in church choirs. Although some authors have studied church choirs (Hill, 2009; Rowher, 2010), more literature is needed. By administering a survey and conducting multiple interviews, I seek an understanding of motivations for being a part of and sustaining membership in a church choir. I examine motivation in three ways: intrinsic, introjected, and extrinsic. I also categorize motivation factors, including: desire for musical or spiritual growth, community, and choir director influence. Implications will likely further understandings of music education in community settings.
The Initial Teaching Experiences of Preservice Music Educators: A Replication Study
Dana Arbaugh Varona, University of Maryland
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad C, Board 16B)
The purpose of this nested case study is to uncover information about the experience of undergraduate students during their music pre-student teaching. The first stage, a replication of a multiple case self-study, involves undergraduate participant-researchers examining data sources from their own pre-student teaching. In the second stage, I assume the role of researcher and conduct a case study with the undergraduates as participants. The data research questions and data collection will be informed by the findings of the first stage. This nested case study is beneficial because researchers and undergraduates work together to better understand the initial teaching experience.
"I Can See You Teaching Music, Can You?" A Phenomenological Case Study Exploring Influences on Music Education Degree Attrition
Elizabeth Mitchell Wallace, Louisiana State University
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad C, Board 16B)
The purpose of this phenomenological case study was to examine the experiences of one successful student who voluntarily withdrew from an undergraduate music education program in the first year of study, changing his major and choice of university. In this presentation, I will discuss the emergent themes from this case study and the corresponding implications for the socialization and success of preservice music educators; 1) environment and community issues specific to the university, 2) lack of curriculum options, specifically those that facilitate the development of music teacher identity, 3) music education job perceptions, and 4) financial concerns.
Undergraduate and Graduate Music Students' Perceptions of Teacher Care within a Choral Rehearsal Context
Megan Noel Wick, University of Colorado Boulder
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad C, Board 16C)
The purpose of this study was to examine music majors’ perceptions of an ensemble instructor’s care. Participants (N = 37) viewed one of three randomly assigned videos of a choral teacher within a college rehearsal context. Participants were asked to respond to the video by completing a questionnaire using 6-point Likert-type scales. Multi-item subscales provided reliable measurement for participants’ perceptions of the teacher’s embodiment of care, and teacher effectiveness, as well as participants’ motivation to work with the teacher, and the degree to which they value teacher care. Results of Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated significant group differences for all dependent variables.
Veteran Music Teachers' Impressions of Moving to a New Music Position Outside of their Specialty
Kristen L. Zebroski, University of Hartford
(Main poster session: Poster Session 2, Conrad A, Board 3D)
The purpose of this research was to explore experiences of veteran teachers moving to a position outside their teaching specialty. Three music teachers with 15+ years of experience and had recently chose a new job with a different music subject or age level participated in this multiple case study. Data collected were lesson plans, curriculums, and other relevant materials, the researcher gaining information through interviews, classroom materials and observations. I identified four themes as a result of cross-case analysis: why I left my job, the transition, school district curriculum, and job satisfaction. Implications include awareness of diverse transitions experiences.
What Not to Wear: Can Attire Portray Effectiveness in the Music Classroom?
Kristen L. Zebroski, University of Hartford
(Main poster session: Poster Session 1, Conrad A, Board 3D)
The researcher investigated the effectiveness of music educators as assessed through attire. Participants (N = 31), including music educators and school administrators, viewed 3 female teachers in casual, dress casual, and professional clothing, teaching identical composition lessons. Assessments included six criteria: presentation of subject matter, enthusiasm, use of terminology, appropriate activities, age-appropriateness, and overall effectiveness. Multiple ANOVAs showed effectiveness was not solely based on attire but appropriateness and terminology within the presentation. The most significant criteria was enthusiasm, which may relate to likeability, found in past studies on attire based assessment. Implications include that confidence and comfort can affect effectiveness.