2015 Symposium on Music Teacher Education

Poster Session I

Friday, September 18, 2015

5:00 PM – 6:30 PM

All posters sorted alphabetically by first author’s last name.


What Cooperating Music Teachers Say about Educative Mentoring: A Focus Study Research Project

Research Poster

Joseph Michael Abramo, Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut

Mark Robin Campbell, Crane School of Music, SUNY Potsdam


This study explored the thoughts of cooperating music teachers on serving as educative mentors. Research questions were: 1. How do cooperating music teachers perceive their roles as educative mentors? 2. What practices seem best aligned with specific notions of mentoring student teachers? Data was collected through survey and focus group of six cooperating teachers. We discuss how findings might provide information on how the music teacher education community might re-conceptualize the cooperating teacher role and the student teaching experience around educative mentoring, as contrasted with a master-apprentice or “maestro” paradigm.


“I just want to teach music”: Influences of Classroom Culture on Pre-Service Music Educators’ Occupational Identities

Research Poster

Daniel J. Albert, Michigan State University


Researchers have posited that classroom culture influences student learning and students’ identities. The purpose of this ethnographic case study was to examine how the classroom culture of an early childhood music pre-service methods class contributed to pre-service educators’ occupational identity development. Results suggested that the culture of the class, along with other classes in the school’s pre-service music education curriculum, influenced students to embrace a desire to teach any type of music at any level. Students also cited the instructor’s processes and class activities as being influential with occupational identity development.


Selection of Literature for Community Children’s Choirs

Research Poster

Ashley D. Allen, Central Michigan University

Debra G. Hedden, University of Kansas


This study investigated the process of choosing literature for community children’s choirs through repeated interviews with participant conductors (n = 6) who had several years of experience and produced quality choir programs. A case study methodology was deemed most appropriate for the study. Data revealed that the participants were not formally trained to choose literature, but did develop a process for choosing literature that considered the children’s voices and the match with the literature’s range, tempi, text, key, length, voicing, and accompaniment.


Multicultural Music Education in the Music Teacher Preparation Programs of NASM-Accredited Colleges and Universities: A Pilot Study

Research Poster

Zandra T. Bell-McRoy, The University of Georgia/Cedar Shoals High School


The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how multicultural music education is included in the music teacher preparation degree programs of NASM-accredited colleges and universities in Georgia. A secondary purpose was to gain insight into the attitudes of music teacher educators regarding the inclusion of multicultural music education in music teacher education programs. It was found that while multicultural music education is included in the degree requirements of several institutions there still remains a need for improvement. Music teacher educators interviewed expressed a need for the inclusion of multicultural music education in music teacher preparation degree programs.


Encouraging Students to Consider Music Education as a Future Profession

Research Poster

Frederick W. Burrack, Kansas State University

Phillip D. Payne, Kansas State University

Ann M. Porter, University of Cincinnati

William E. Fredrickson, Florida State University


The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, communication practices, and teaching opportunities provided by in-service music teachers in order to encourage their students to consider the music teaching profession. Students in programs taught by over half of the teachers surveyed were provided with opportunities to explore the music education profession as a viable option as a career. Experiences provided for students as described by the teachers reflect authentic practices of the teaching profession. One concerning finding was that over one-fifth of the teachers responding reported that they actively discourage students from pursuing music education as a career.


Four Perspectives on Collaborative Action Research in K-12 Music Education

Programs, Practices, and Issues Poster

Mark Robin Campbell, The Crane School of Music, SUNY at Potsdam

Melinda Feldman, Vernon-Verona-Sherrill Schools, Verona, NY

Martha K. Group, Vernon-Verona-Sherrill Schools, Verona, NY

Kathryn Hess, Vernon-Verona-Sherrill Schools, Verona, NY


In this presentation we share our experiences as a team of K-12/university music educators who conducted a yearlong action research project focused on K-12 curriculum reform, and we discuss action research as a form of professional development. With the actual study serving as a springboard, we address issues of knowledge generation, teacher efficacy, standards, theory-driven inquiry, and context. In conclusion we suggest that action research could “build bridges” between university and K-12 communities and serve as a “core practice” within music teacher education/professional development. The superintendent of the district in which the research took place offers observations and commentary.


Hangout with Preservice Teachers via Google: Effective Use of Videoconferencing in Teacher Preparation Programs

Programs, Practices, and Issues Poster

Carolyn S. Cruse, Texas Tech University

Jacqueline C. Henninger, Texas Tech University


The purpose of this session is to share the effective ways in which Google Hangout has been incorporated into the teacher preparation program at a large university in the Southwest. We will discuss the use of this Internet application as a way to maintain frequent contact and quality interactions with student teachers, both local and in other areas across the state. Preservice teachers share successes and challenges in real-time with others who are having similar experiences during their student teaching. This model of videoconferencing is a form of professional development for both Music Teacher Educators and novice/beginning teachers.


Music Teachers’ Experiences in One-to-One Computing Environments

Research Poster

Jay Dorfman, Boston University


Music teachers often find themselves in schools that adopt one-to-one technology models, but may be inadequately equipped for technological integration. This four-case study was theoretically framed using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (Hall, George, & Rutherford, 1977; Hall & Hord, 2001). Primarily through classroom observations and interviews, participant teachers expressed their concerns related to musical goals, extent of integration, changes that could improve the programs, and other pedagogical factors. Results showed that while the participants used the technologies in distinct ways and to varying extents, they shared concerns about technical support, pedagogical support, and authenticity of integration.


Universal Design for Learning Framework: Empowering Inclusive Music Educators

Programs, Practices, and Issues Poster

Rhonda J. Fuelberth, University of Nebraska-Lincoln


Courses designed to equip music educators to teach in inclusive environments focus on empowering teachers to implement strategies that maximize full access to meaningful experiences in music for all learners. Universal Design for Learning, a research-based framework for curricular and instructional planning, provides music classroom participants’ access to musical skills and concepts, creates various ways students can demonstrate what they know, and explores ways to motivate students to learn. Using research-based examples, session participants will discover strategies and techniques for implementing Universal Design for Learning principles in music teacher education programs.


Agency and Identity: Exploring Student Perceptions of Project-Based Learning Experiences in Music Technology Courses

Research Poster

Dennis Patrick Giotta, Case Western Reserve University


The purpose of this collective case study was to examine the learning experiences of high school students enrolled in a music technology course. Data were collected through semi-structured and unstructured individual interviews, focus group interviews, field notes from observations, weekly student journals, and audiovisual materials. An analysis of the data garnered various codes and themes related to identity, project-based learning, lifelong musical involvement, and students’ opinions concerning music technology. The results indicated that students value freedom and personalization as well as collaborating with others throughout the process of creating music and developing an appreciation of music from various genres.


Cooperating Teachers as Music Teacher Educators

Research Poster

Jennifer Reynolds Greene, Fayetteville-Manlius High School

Laura Moates Stanley, Brookwood High School


Examining the literature on student teaching, we found many studies about cooperating teachers, but few studies by cooperating teachers. This piqued our interest in whether experienced cooperating teachers, like ourselves, viewed themselves as music teacher educators, and the extent to which they perceived a hierarchy between the university and the school. One of us investigated music cooperating teachers’ narrative identities while the other investigated cooperating teachers’ narrative authority (see Olson, 1995). We present our individual findings, plus our joint implications in which we suggest that a cooperating teacher’s awareness of his or her ipse-identity (see Ricouer, 1992) provides a foundation for the development of narrative authority.


Integrating Technology Competencies into Current Music Education Coursework

Programs, Practices, and Issues Poster

Peter J. Hamlin, Gonzaga University


College accreditation organizations such as NCATE and NASM require that music education degree programs address issues of teaching with technology. Arts curricula, standards that stipulate what school children must learn about the role of technology in music, and the increasing number of music classrooms with new technology have put additional pressure on college instructors to find ways to add technology competency to music education courses. This presentation will provide a list of technology competencies for future music educators and provide some ideas for addressing those within current music education courses.


Teaching Music to Students with Special Needs: A Spiral Model for Pre-Service Music Educators

Programs, Practices, and Issues Poster

Alice Maxine Hammel, James Madison University

David A. Stringham, James Madison University

Gary K. Ritcher, James Madison University


Pre-service music teachers must learn to provide high quality musical experiences for all students, including those with special needs. Yet music teacher educators often lack this expertise themselves. In this presentation, we describe a curricular model for providing pre-service music educators with knowledge and skills to serve music students with special needs. The model is a music-specific, four-year sequence taught by an expert in teaching music to students with special needs. We explore how early career teachers who receive this instruction may provide a kind of “reverse professional development” for teacher educators at their institution as they begin their careers.


Authentic Context Learning Through a Middle School Ensemble Program

Programs, Practices, and Issues Poster

Leila T. Heil, University of Colorado-Boulder

David A. Rickels, University of Colorado-Boulder

Margaret H. Berg, University of Colorado-Boulder


The Middle School Ensemble (MSE) Program was created in 2007 to offer pre-service music teachers opportunities to develop teaching skills and assume responsibilities within an authentic-context learning environment.  The program now operates two bands, one string ensemble, and one choir made up of 6th-8th grade students from local communities. Ongoing goals include providing mentorship opportunities for graduate students preparing to be teacher educators, and forming mutually beneficial partnerships between faculty, students and external constituents. Evidence for the success of the program comes from positive feedback on exit surveys and the high rate of student participation over multiple years.


Self-Efficacy and Content Assessment in Beginning Music Educators

Research Poster

Elise Marie Hepworth, Missouri Western State University

Andrew H. Homburg, Missouri State University


As stakeholders in a mid-western state, music education faculty from two university music education programs designed a self-efficacy survey to be used in conjunction with a content area assessment. Survey questions address efficacy and content area knowledge in pre-service teachers and teachers in the first three years of public or private school instruction. As a result of the study, solutions will be offered to address possible gaps in the scope and sequence of curriculum development in music teacher education preparation programs. Long–term benefits include increased teacher retention and additional collaboration between / tertiary institutions and professionals in the K-12 classroom.


The "Choice" to Participate in Music: An Examination of Student Demographic Factors and Student Enrollment in Ellective Music Courses

Research Poster

Andrew H. Homburg, Missouri State University

William T. Grega, Springfield Public Schools


This study is a collaboration of university faculty and public school district curriculum developers examining correlations between student demographic factors and student choice to participate in music. Subjects were public school students in grades 5-6 enrolled in the largest school district (25,000 students K-12) in a mid-western state. For the purposes of comparison, subjects were assigned to groups based on enrollment in elective out-of-school music ensembles. Studied demographic information includes race, ethnicity, free or reduced lunch status, grade point average, attendance, busing, student class schedule, remediation in math or reading in previous school years, and participation in the gifted program.


edTPA and Beyond: Supporting Our Students Through Standardized Assessments

Programs, Practices, and Issues Poster

Jay Juchniewicz, East Carolina University

Cynthia L. Wagoner, East Carolina University


This poster will bring perspectives and program data from one state actively involved in the edTPA as part of requirements for music education program completion.  Additionally, we will present how we have integrated these assessments into our coursework and will address specific supports provided to candidates during the construction of their portfolios.


Collaboration Through Rock n' Roll

Programs, Practices, and Issues Poster

Christa R. Kuebel, Case Western Reserve University


A recent collaboration between three schools in one mid-western city has supported the musical development of both university and high school students through a secondary general rock band course. The pre-service teachers developed their teaching skills of the high school age group while using rock and roll as a teaching tool, as the high-school students were experiencing musical growth through informal practices. This poster will describe the partnership, including the culminating group composition project, address the importance of community collaboration, the benefits for both high school students and pre-service teachers, and suggest ideas for future collaborative efforts between these organizations.


What and Why: Examining Instrumental Music Educators’ Discussions Within Online Learning Communities

Research Poster

Tammy L. Kuntz, Kent State University

Ed Duling, Kent State University


This presentation will share how instrumental music educators made use of general discussion boards in online learning communities. Data from existing posts revealed six categories: (a) opinion; (b) question/clarification about coursework; (c) questions about other topics; (d) encouragement; (e) sharing non-course information; (f) answering non-course questions. Educators also responded to a survey based on their perceptions of discussion boards: (a) benefits and quality; (b) instructional ideas and techniques; (c) networking and collaborations. Implications: information gathered will assist online instructors in encouraging participation in open forums, establishing wider networks, and in sharing ideas, strategies, research and collaboration beyond class requirements.


Transitions to Teacherhood: Reflections on Becoming Music Teachers

Research Poster

Susana M. Lalama, Converse College

Sandra M. Sanchez, University of Miami

Stan Haskins, University of Miami

Craig Denison, Indiana University of Pennsylvania


Every music teacher has a journey to becoming and identifying him or herself as a teacher. Although the process of becoming a music teacher has similar curricular and training requirements, the socialization process can be a unique and complex experience. This pilot study utilizes written journal entries of four experienced music teachers (band, choir, orchestra, and general music) who reflect on their experiences of becoming music teachers. Issues, events, and activities in journal entries will be coded into categories of analysis then compared across cases to identify commonalities, differences, and emerging categories between teachers’ experiences.


An Investigation of Non-musicians' Conservation of Melody under Harmonic Deformations

Research Poster

Jing Liu, Texas Tech University


This study was designed to extend Zimmerman’s research regarding melodic/harmonic conservation among children to adult listeners, investigating whether non-musicians could identify the melody when it was harmonized (Task I) and when it was harmonized differently (Task II). Additionally, could non-musicians aurally separate melody from harmony (Task III)? Participants (n= 80) listened to paired examples, identifying whether the melody was same or different in each pair. I also examined effects of different harmony on non-musicians’ accuracy and the relationship between these three tasks. The effect of knowledge of the developmental stages of melodic/harmonic conservation on teacher preparation was also discussed.


Expanding The Arts Community: Pre-Proffesional Service-Learning In Music Education And Art Therapy

Research Poster

Wendy K. Matthews, Wayne State University

Holly Feen-Calligan, Wayne State University


This session describes a multi-site case study of a Midwest urban university’s music education and art therapy students participating in service-learning assignments, prior to their internship. The researchers explored students’ experiences as service-learners, pedagogical implications of the service-learning assignment, and whether or how service-learning fostered personal dispositions and professional identity. Six cohorts (2 music education/4 art therapy) of students participated in the study. Aspects common to both fields were found including themes centering on the transformation self-centered thoughts (about the student’s own performance) to selfless actions (developing compassion for their constituents). Challenges inherent in service-learning assignments are also discussed.


A Preliminary Analysis of an Online Band Director Discussion Board

Research Poster

Si Millican, The University of Texas-San Antonio


Music teacher concerns have been documented through case studies, surveys, and mixed methodologies, but there are presently no studies that tap data generated by online music-teacher communities. The purpose of this study was to examine the concerns of band directors by archiving every post (n > 25,000) from an online band-director discussion board in a large southwestern state over a period of one calendar year. Some of the most prolific discussion topics include sexual orientation, employment decision making, and relationships with other music teachers. Additional findings, recommendations, and implications will be shared during this presentation.


Measuring Pre-Service Music Educators’ Dispositions Of Caring: A Tri-Fold Investigation

Research Poster

Kelly A. Parkes, Virginia Tech

Gary K. Ritcher, James Madison University

Paul F. Doerksen, Duquesne University


The purpose of this research was to identify potential methods of measuring caring dispositions in pre-service music educators. Twelve music teacher educators administered three author-developed tools with their cohort of pre-service teachers, ranging in size from 5–120. Planned analyses include descriptive data, correlational analyses, and factor analyses. The authors will report internal consistencies of the three methods of measurement (psychometric, projective prompt, and behavioral rating scales) with a view to sharing with the profession reliable and valid methods of measuring caring dispositions in pre-service music educators. Findings and implications will be shared in the presentation.


Examining the Predictive Properties of an Electronic Portfolio as It Relates to the Four Domains of the Danielson Framework.

Research Poster

Phillip D. Payne, Kansas State University

Frederick W. Burrack, Kansas State University


This study explores the predictive ability of web-based portfolios as it relates to the four domains of the Danielson Framework: perspective and preparation, classroom environment, instruction, and professional responsibilities. The study focused on music education students at a large midwestern United States university. The session includes an historical perspective of integrating web-based portfolios into teacher education in the United States, practices faculty use to assess progress and achievement of skills, knowledge, and dispositions of music teachers-in-training. Findings will be shared from analysis of five years of data gathered from graduates of the music education program.


Critical Questions to Guide Music Teacher Development

Programs, Practices, and Issues Poster

Michael A. Raiber, Oklahoma City University

David J. Teachout, University of North Carolina-Greensboro


Historically, music teacher development has been investigated through several theoretical frameworks. These frameworks include music teacher identities as ‘musician’ and/or ‘teacher’, occupational role development, and development via teacher concerns. Using scholarly foundations from each of these lines of investigation, we have developed 11 critical questions that can serve as touchstones informing both pre-service and in-service music teacher development. Those attending is session will engage in a limited critical examination of their own practice via these questions and be challenged to consider the impact of these critical questions across the trajectory of a music teacher’s professional development.


Recruiting the Right (and Right Number) of Music Education Students to your Program through Strategic Use of Scholarship Funds

Research Poster

Joshua A. Russell, The Hartt School, The University of Hartford

Warren Haston, The Hartt School, University of Hartford

Vanessa L. Bond, The Hartt School, University of Hartford


The purpose of this research was to explore the relationships between music entrance scores, individual difference variables, financial awards and expected family contribution and the decision to enroll in a program. We collected data from one decade for all music education students accepted into a music school. Expected family contribution, when taking into account sex and ethnicity, may play a role in a student’s decision to enter this particular institution. We found that students’ verbal SAT score had an indirect impact on placing a deposit. Additional factors will be discussed as well as implications for the awarding of scholarships to potential music education students.


Planting Seeds: Issues and Outcomes Relevant to the Teaching of Introductory Courses in Music Education

Programs, Practices, and Issues Poster

Amanda L. Schlegel, University of Southern Mississippi

D. Gregory Springer, University of South Carolina

Natalie Steele Royston, Iowa State University

Elizabeth A. Menard, Bowling Green State University


This panel discussion will explore issues and outcomes related to the teaching of introductory courses in music education. Specifically, we will discuss: (1) purposes and objectives; (2) methods and materials; (3) variables affecting course content and structure; and (4) the efficacy/benefits of observing teaching and practice teaching. Panel members will discuss the introductory courses in music education at their institutions as a means of framing each of the four topics of conversation in a reflective and collaborative way. Contributions and questions from those in attendance will add to the body of options discussed in this interactive session.


Singing is Elementary: Teachers' Use of Singing in Three Kodály-Based Elementary General Music Classrooms

Research Poster

Megan M. Sheridan, University of Florida


The purpose of this study was to describe teachers’ use of singing in three Kodály-based elementary general music classrooms. Four themes emerged in the course of the study: singing, Kodály philosophy, standards and curriculum, and the purpose of music education. Findings indicate that singing plays a significant role in the classes taught by the participants, and that having a well-grounded personal philosophy of music teaching may help music teachers to navigate changes in standards and curricula while continuing to focus on the vocal development of their students.


Breaking the Sound of Silence: A Teacher Conversation Group

Research Poster

Alden H. Snell, II, University of Delaware

Suzanne L. Burton, University of Delaware


As music teacher educators, we desired to provide novice music teachers with an opportunity to participate in a community of music practitioners. We created a teacher conversation group (a collaborative and supportive forum for dialogue), which comprised six novice music teachers who gathered to discuss topics of choice. Over a 6-week period participants formed a close-knit community as they craved professional development. Mentoring each other, they sought affirmation for doing their jobs well, expressed concern about negotiating relationships with school personnel, and balancing work and home. This conversation group demonstrated a need for meaningful, community-based interactions among music educators.


Playing by Ear as a Means for Creating: Band Students’ Perspectives

Research Poster

Amy Spears, Nebraska Wesleyan University


Through this qualitative study of an alternative paradigm for the band classroom, the researcher sought to learn how students in a traditional high school band program navigated the process of learning music by ear. This presentation will discuss the emergent themes in students’ processes, responses to, and attitudes about the aural learning aspect of the project. Playing by ear contributes to discourse on the development of a stronger, richer community by bridging the gap between the ways people largely participate in formal musical settings versus more informal ones, often outside of school.


Shared Assessment in Music Teacher Preparation

Programs, Practices, and Issues Poster

Stephanie L. Standerfer, Shenandoah University


The complex aspects of authority, agency, and self-efficacy need to be purposely embedded in coursework to strengthen music education students’ music teacher identity development. Using shared-assessments (Brophy, 2014, Pastor, 2011; Unwin & Caraher, 2000) is one avenue to that goal. Strategies for incorporating shared-assessment in music education programs may include modifying curriculum assessments, practicum teaching assessments, and course assessments. The presentation will include examples of each and discussion of the impacts on students’ sense of authority (Danielwitz, 2001), agency (Greene, 2000), and self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997), which are critical aspects of teacher identity development.


The Effect of Model Gender on Instrument Choice Preference of Beginning Band Students

Research Poster

Mark Edmond Vickers, The Hartt School, University of Hartford


Musical instrument gender stereotypes may influence students’ selection of an instrument for study. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of model gender on instrument preference of beginning band students during the selection process. Participants (n= 171) belonged to one of four treatment groups viewing instruments demonstrated by either a female modeler, a male modeler, typical gender stereotype modelers, or atypical gender stereotype modelers when recruited. Students rated their preference for each instrument before and after the demonstration. No significant changes occurred in their preferences. Participants attributed tone as the main reason for preferring an instrument.


Teacher License Revocation and Surrender in North Carolina

Research Poster

Jennifer S. Walter, The University of North Carolina-Greensboro


Teacher license revocations and surrenders were examined in North Carolina. Specific research questions were (a) what types of offenses caused school employees to lose their licenses; and (b) were coaches and music teachers more likely to lose their licenses due to sexual misconduct? The majority of license revocations and surrenders were for (a) sexual infractions with students (n = 388; 52%); and (b) other behaviors ranging from falsifying applications to murder (n = 295; 40%). Seventy-two of 186 school employees (39%) were reported to be coaches (24%) and music teachers (15%). Conclusions and implications for future research will be discussed.


A Survey of Admission Standards and Procedures of Member Institutions of the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM)

Research Poster

Jeffrey T. Ward, East Carolina University

Phillip D. Payne, Kansas State University


The National Association of Schools of Music guides member institutions in admitting new students to music degree programs. The present study is a survey of NASM member institutions of varying sizes, missions, and degree program offerings. Using a Qualtrics© online survey instrument, respondents describe admission procedures and minimum content knowledge and skill levels of qualified students enrolling in a music degree program offered by the institution. This research is an initial study in connecting higher education admission practices with the National Core Music Standards in K-12 schools, as assessed by the Model Cornerstone Assessments.